Are we living in a computer simulation?

The idea that the Earth, its inhabitants and the whole universe could be just a computer simulation is not new. Many have argued that intelligent agents simulated in a computer are not necessarily aware they are part of a computer simulation. Nick Bostrum, author of Supperintelligence and professor at Oxford, suggested in 2003 that members of an advanced civilization with enormous computing power might decide to run simulations of their ancestors.

Of course, no computer simulation created by mankind was ever able to simulate realities as complex as our world, nor beings as intelligent as humans. Current computer technology is not powerful enough to simulate worlds with that level of complexity. However, more advanced computer technologies could be used to simulate much more complex virtual realities, possibly as complex as our own reality.

A recent article in Scientific American about this topic includes opinions from many well known scientists. Neil deGrasse Tyson, well-known for the series Cosmos, put the odds at 50-50 that our entire existence is a program on someone else’s hard drive. Max Tegmark, a cosmologist at MIT) pointed out that “If I were a character in a computer game, I would also discover eventually that the rules seemed completely rigid and mathematical,” just as our universe.

This week the topic came to the forefront, at the Code Conference 2016, where Elon Musk said that “we’re probably characters in some advanced civilisation’s video game“.  His argument is that “If you assume any rate of improvement at all, then the games will become indistinguishable from reality, even if that rate of advancement drops by a thousand from what it is now. Then you just say, okay, let’s imagine it’s 10,000 years in the future, which is nothing on the evolutionary scale.

Therefore, if you assume this rate of evolution lasts for a few centuries, computer games will become indistinguishable from reality and we may well be inside one of those.


To be fair, there are many things that could be interpreted as signs that we do live, indeed, inside a computer simulation. The strangeness of quantum computing, the vastness and the many inexplicable coincidences of the universe, the unexplained start of the evolutionary process, are all things that could be easily explained by the “simulated world” hypothesis.

This topic has, of course, already been fully addressed by Zach Weiner in a brilliant SMBC strip.

Pictured, the Marenostrun supercomputer, in a photo by David Abián, available at Wikimedia Commons.


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