European Commission releases communication on Artificial Intelligence

Today, April 25th, 2018, the European Commission released a communication entitled Artificial Intelligence for Europe, and a related press release, addressing what could become the European strategy for Artificial Intelligence.

The document states that “Like the steam engine or electricity in the past, AI is transforming our world, our society and our industry. Growth in computing power, availability of data and progress in algorithms have turned AI into one of the most strategic technologies of the 21st century.

The communication argues that “The EU as a whole (public and private sectors combined) should aim to increase this investment [in Artificial Intelligence] to at least EUR 20 billion by the end of 2020. It should then aim for more than EUR 20 billion per year over the following decade.” These values should be compared with the current value of 4-5 billion, spent in AI.

The communication also addresses some questions raised by the increased ability of AI systems to replace human jobs: “The first challenge is to prepare the society as a whole. This means helping all Europeans to develop basic digital skills, as well as skills which are complementary to and cannot be replaced by any machine such as critical thinking, creativity or management. Secondly, the EU needs to focus efforts to help workers in jobs which are likely to be the most transformed or to disappear due to automation, robotics and AI. This is also about ensuring access for all citizens, including workers and the self-employed, to social protection, in line with the European Pillar of Social Rights. Finally, the EU needs to train more specialists in AI, building on its long tradition of academic excellence, create the right environment for them to work in the EU and attract more talent from abroad.”

This initiative, which has already received significant press coverage, may become Europe’s answer to the strong investments China and the United States are making in Artificial Intelligence technologies. There is also a fact sheet about the communication.

The Second Machine Age

The Second Machine Age, by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, two MIT professors and researchers, offers mostly an economist’s point of view on the consequences of the technological changes that are remaking civilisation.

Although a fair number of chapters is dedicated to the technological innovations that are shaping the first decades of the 21st century, the book is at its best when the economic issues are presented and discussed.

The book is particularly interesting in its treatment of the bounty vs. spread dilema: will economic growth be fast enough to lift everyone’s standard of living, or will increased concentration of wealth lead to such an increase in inequality that many will be left behind?

The chapter that provides evidence on the steady increase in inequality is specially appealing and convincing. While average income, in the US, has been increasing steadily in the last decades, median income (the income of those who are exactly in the middle of the pay scale) has stagnated for several decades, and may even be decreasing in the last few years. For the ones at the bottom at the scale, the situation is much worst now than decades ago.

Abundant evidence of this trend also comes from the analysis of the shares of GDP that are due to wages and to corporate profits. Although these two fractions of GDP have fluctuated somewhat in the last century, there is mounting evidence that the fraction due to corporate profits is now increasing, while the fraction due to wages is decreasing.

All this evidence, put together, leads to the inevitable conclusion that society has to explicitly address the challenges posed by the fourth industrial revolution.

The last chapters are, indeed, dedicated to this issue. The authors do not advocate a universal basic income, but come out in defence of a negative income tax for those whose earnings are below a given level. The mathematics of the proposal are somewhat unclear but, in the end, one thing remains certain: society will have to address the problem of mounting inequality brought in by technology and globalisation.

MIT distances itself from Nectome, a mind uploading company

The MIT Media Lab, a unit of MIT, decided to sever the ties that connected it with Nectome, a startup that proposes to make available a technology that processes and chemically preserves a brain, down to its most minute details, in order to make it possible, at least in principle, to simulate your brain and upload your mind, sometime in the future.

According to the MIT news release, “MIT’s connection to the company came into question after MIT Technology Review detailed Nectome’s promotion of its “100 percent fatal” technology” in an article posted in the MIT Technology Review site.

As reported in this blog, Nectome claims that by preserving the brain, it may be possible, one day, “to digitize your preserved brain and use that information to recreate your mind”. Nectome acknowledges, however, that the technology is fatal to the brain donor and that there are no warranties that future recovery of the memories, knowledge and personality will be possible.

Detractors have argued that the technology is not sound, since simulating a preserved brain is a technology that is at least many decades in the future and may even be impossible in principle. The criticisms were, however, mostly based on the argument the whole enterprise is profoundly unethical.

This kind of discussion between proponents of technologies aimed at performing whole brain emulation, sometimes in the future, and detractors that argue that such an endeavor is fundamentally flawed, has occurred in the past, most notably a 2014 controversy concerning the objectives of the Human Brain Project. In this controversy, critics argued that the goal of a large-scale simulation of the brain is premature and unsound, and that funding should be redirected towards more conventional approaches to the understanding of brain functions. Supporters of the Human Brain Project approach argued that reconstructing and simulating the human brain is an important objective in itself, which will bring many benefits and advance our knowledge of the brain and of the mind.

Picture by the author.