Novacene: the future of humanity is digital?

As it says on the cover of the book, James Lovelock may well be “the great scientific visionary of our age“. He is probably best known for the Gaia Hypothesis, but he made several other major contributions. While working for NASA, he was the first to propose looking for chemical biomarkers in the atmosphere of other planets as a sign of extraterrestrial life, a method that has been extensively used and led to a number of interesting results, some of them very recent. He has argued for climate engineering methods, to fight global warming, and a strong supporter of nuclear energy, by far the safest and less polluting form of energy currently available.

Lovelock has been an outspoken environmentalist, a strong voice against global warming, and the creator of the Gaia Hypothesis, the idea that all organisms on Earth are part of a synergistic and self-regulating system that seeks to maintain the conditions for life on Earth. The ideas he puts forward in this book are, therefore, surprising. To him, we are leaving the Anthropocene (a geological epoch, characterized by the profound effect of men on the Earth environment, still not recognized as a separate epoch by mainstream science) and entering the Novacene, an epoch where digital intelligence will become the most important form of life on Earth and near space.

Although it may seem like a position inconsistent with his previous arguments about the nature of life on Earth, I find the argument for the Novacene era convincing and coherent. Again, Lovelock appears as a visionary, extrapolating to its ultimate conclusion the trend of technological development that started with the industrial revolution.

As he says, “The intelligence that launches the age that follows the Anthropocene will not be human; it will be something wholly different from anything we can now conceive.”

To me, his argument that artificial intelligence, digital intelligence, will be our future, our offspring, is convincing. It will be as different from us as we are from the first animals that appeared hundreds of millions ago, which were also very different from the cells that started life on Earth. Four billion years after the first lifeforms appeared on Earth, life will finally create a new physical support, that does not depend on DNA, water, or an Earth-like environment and is adequate for space.

Could Venus possibly harbor life?

Two recently published papers, including one in Nature Astronomy (about the discovery itself) and this one in Astrobiology (describing a possible life cycle), report the existence of phosphine in the upper atmosphere of Venus, a gas that cannot be easily generated by non-biological processes in the conditions believed to exist in that planet. Phosphine may, indeed, turn out to be a biosignature, an indicator of the possible existence of micro-organisms in a planet that was considered, up to now, barren. Search for life in our solar system has been concentrated in other bodies, more likely to host micro-organisms, like Mars of the icy moons of outer planets.

The findings have been reported in many media outlets, including the NY Times and The Economist, raising interesting questions about the prevalence of life in the universe and the possible existence of life in one of our nearest neighbor planets. If the biological origin of phosphine were to be confirmed, it would qualify as the discovery of the century, maybe the most important discovery in the history of science! We are, however, far from that point. A number of things may make this finding another false alarm. Still, it is quite exciting that what has been considered a possible sign of life has been found so close to us and even a negative result would increase our knowledge about the chemical processes that generate this compound until now believed to be a reliable biomarker.

This turns out to be a first step, not a final result. Quoting from the Nature Astronomy paper:

Even if confirmed, we emphasize that the detection of PH3 is not robust evidence for life, only for anomalous and unexplained chemistry. There are substantial conceptual problems for the idea of life in Venus’s clouds—the environment is extremely dehydrating as well as hyperacidic. However, we have ruled out many chemical routes to PH3, with the most likely ones falling short by four to eight orders of magnitude (Extended Data Fig. 10). To further discriminate between unknown photochemical and/or geological processes as the source of Venusian PH3, or to determine whether there is life in the clouds of Venus, substantial modelling and experimentation will be important. Ultimately, a solution could come from revisiting Venus for in situ measurements or aerosol return.