Extraterrestrial: The First Sign of Alien Life?

Avi Loeb is not exactly someone who one may call an outsider to the scientific community. As a reputed scholar and the longest serving chair of Harvard’s Department of Astronomy, he is a well-known and reputed physicist, with many years of experience in astrophysics and cosmology. It is therefore somewhat surprising that in this book he strongly supports an hypothesis that is anything but widely accepted in the scientific community: ʻOumuamua, the first interstellar object ever detected in our solar system may be an artifact created by an alien civilization.

We are not talking here about alien conspiracies, UFOs or little green men from Mars. Loeb’s idea, admirably explained, is that there are enough strange things about ʻOumuamua to raise the real possibility that it is not simply a strange rock and that it may be an artificial construct, maybe a lightsail or a beacon.

There are, indeed, several strange things about this object, discovered by a telescope in Hawaii, in October 2017. It was the first object ever discovered near the Sun that did not orbit our star; its luminosity changed radically, by a factor of about 10; it is very bright for its size; and, perhaps more strangely, it exhibited non‑gravitational acceleration as its orbit did not exactly match the orbit of a normal rock with no external forces applied other than the gravity of the Sun.

None of these abnormalities, per se, would be enough to raise eyebrows. But, all combined, they do indeed make for a strange object. And Loeb’s point is, exactly, that the possibility that ‘Oumuamua is an artifact of alien origin should be taken seriously by the scientific community. And yet, he argues, anything that has to do with extraterrestrial life is not considered serious science, leading to a negative bias and to a lack of investment in what should be one of the most important scientific questions: are we alone in the Universe? As such, SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Life, does not get the recognition and the funding it deserves. Paradoxically, other fields whose theories may never be confirmed by experiment nor have any real impact on us, such as multiverse based explanations of quantum mechanics or string theory, are considered serious fields, attract much more funding, and are more favorably viewed by young researchers.

The book makes for very interesting reading, both for the author’s positions about ‘Oumuamua itself and for his opinions about today’s scientific establishment.

Possible minds

John Brockman’s project of bringing together 25 pioneers in Artificial Intelligence to discuss the promises and perils of the field makes for some interesting reading. This collection of short essays lets you peer inside the minds of such luminaries as Judea Pearl, Stuart Russell, Daniel Dennett, Frank Wilczek, Max Tegmark, Steven Pinter or David Deutsch, to name only a few. The fact that each one of them contributed with an essay that is only a dozen pages long does not hinder the transmission of the messages and ideas they support. On the contrary, it is nice to read about Pearl’s ideas about causality or Tegmark’s thoughts on the future of intelligence in a short essay. Although the essays do not replace longer and more elaborate texts, they certainly give the reader the gist of the central arguments that, in many cases, made the authors well-known. Although the organization of the essay varies from author to author, all contributions are relevant and entertaining, whether they come from lesser-known artists or from famous scientists such as George Church, Seth Loyd, or Rodney Brooks.

The texts in this book did not appear out of thin air. In fact, the invited contributors were given the same starting point: Norbert Wiener’s influential book “The Human Use of Human Beings”, a prescient text authored more than 70 years ago by one of the most influential researchers in the field that, ultimately, originally coined as cybernetics ultimately led to digital computers and Artificial Intelligence. First published in 1950, Wiener’s book serves as the starting point for 25 interesting takes on the future of computation, artificial intelligence, and humanity. Whether you believe that the future of humanity will be digital or are concerned that we are losing our humanity, there will be something in this book for you.