Virtually Human: the promise of digital immortality

Martine Rothblatt’s latest book, Virtually Human, the promise – and the peril – of digital immortality, recommended by none less than the likes of Craig Venter and Ray Kurzweil, is based on an interesting premise, which looks quite reasonable in principle.

Each one of us leaves behind such a large digital trace that it could be used, at least in principle, to teach a machine to behave like the person that generated the trace. In fact, if you put together all the pictures, videos, emails and messages that you generate in a lifetime, together with additional information like GPS coordinates, phone conversations, and social network info, there should be enough information for the right software to learn to behave just like you.

Rothblatt imagines that all this information will be stored in what she calls a mindfile and that such a mindfile could be used by software (mindware) to create mindclones, software systems that would think, behave and act like the original human that was used to create the mindfile. Other systems, similar to these, but not based on a copy of a human original, are called bemans, and raise similar questions. Would such systems have rights and responsibilities, just like humans? Rothblatt argues forcefully that society will have to recognize them as persons, sooner or later. Otherwise, we would assist to a return to situations that modern societies have already abandoned, like slavery, and other practices that disrespect basic human rights (in this case, mindclone and beman’s rights).

Most of the book is dedicated to the analysis of the social, ethical, and economic consequences of an environment where humans live with mindclones and bemans. This analysis is entertaining and comprehensive, ranging from subjects as diverse as the economy, human relations, families, psychology, and even religion.  If one assumes the technology to create mindclones will happen, thinking about the consequences of such a technology is interesting and entertaining.

However, the book falls short in that it does not provide any convincing evidence that the technology will come to exist, in any form similar to the one that is assumed so easily by the author. We do not know how to create mindware that could interpret a mindfile and use it to create a conscious, sentient, self-aware system that is indistinguishable, in its behavior, from the original. Nor are we likely to find out soon how such a mindware could be designed. And yet, Rothblatt seems to think that such a technology is just around the corner, maybe just a few decades away. All in all, it sounds more like (poor) science fiction than the shape of things to come.


The Beginning of Infinity

David Deutsch‘s newest book, The Beginning of Infinity is a tour de force argument for the power of science to transform the world. Deutsch’s main point is that human intelligence, once it reached the point where it started to be used to construct predictive explanations about the behavior of nature, became universal. Here, “universal” means that is can be used to understand any phenomenon and that this understanding leads to the creation of new technologies, which will be used to spread human intelligence throughout the known universe.

The Beginning of Infinity is not just one more book about science and how science is transforming our world. It is an all-encompassing analysis of the way human intelligence and human societies can develop or stagnate, by adopting or refusing to adopt the stance of looking for understandable explanations. Deutsch calls “static” those societies that refuse to look for new, non-supernatural explanations and “dynamic” those that are constantly looking for new explanations, based on objective and checkable evidence. Dynamic societies, he argues, develop and propagate rational memes, while static societies hold on to non-rational memes.

In the process, Deutsch talks authoritatively about evolution, the universality of computation, quantum mechanics, the multiverse and the paradoxes of infinity. They are not disparate subjects since they all become part of one single story on how humanity managed to understand and control the physical world.

Deutsch is at his best when arguing that science and technology are not only positive forces but that they are the only way to ensure the survival of Humanity in the long run. He argues, convincingly, against the myth of Gaia, the idea that the planet is a living being providing us with a generous and forgiving environment as well as against the related, almost universal, concern that technological developments are destroying the planet. This is nonsense, he argues. The future survival of Humanity and the hope of spreading human intelligence throughout the Cosmos reside entirely in our ability to control nature and to bend it to our will. Otherwise, we will follow the path of the many species that became extinct, for not being able to control the natural or unnatural phenomena that led to their extinction.

Definitely, the book to read if you care about the Future of Humanity.


Crystal Nights

Exactly 80 years ago, Kristallnacht (the night of the crystals) took place in Germany, in the night from the 9th to the 10th of November. Jews were persecuted and killed, and their property was destroyed, in an event that is an important marker in the rise of the anti-semitism movement that characterized Nazi Germany. The name comes from the many windows of Jewish-owned stores broken during that night.

Greg Egan, one of my favorite science fiction writers, wrote a short story inspired in that same night, entitled Crystal Nights. This (very) short story is publicly available (you can find it here ) and is definitely worth a reading. I will not spoil the ending here, but it has to do with computers and singularities. The story was also included in a book that features other short stories by Greg Egan.

If you like this story, maybe you should check other books by Egan, such as Permutation City, Diaspora or Axiomatic (another collection of short stories).

LIFE 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Max Tegmark’s latest book, LIFE 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence, is an enthralling journey into the future, when the developments in artificial intelligence create a new type of lifeform on Earth.

Tegmark proposes to classify life in three stages. Life 1.0, unintelligent life, is able to change its hardware and improve itself only through the very slow and blind process of natural evolution. Single cell organisms, plants and simple animals are in this category. Life 2.0 is also unable to change its hardware (excepto through evolution, as for Life 1.0) but can change its software, stored in the brains, by using previous experience to learn new behaviors. Higher animals and humans, in particular, belong here. Humans can now, up to a limited point, change their hardware (through prosthetics, cellphones, computers and other devices) so they could also be considered now Life 2.1.

Life 3.0 is the new generation of life, which can change both its software and its hardware. The ability to change the computational support (i.e., the physical basis of computation) results from technological advances, which will only accelerate with the advent of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). The book is really about the future of a world where AGI enables humanity to create a whole range of new technologies, and expand new forms of life through the cosmos.

The riveting prelude, The Tale of the Omega Team, is the story of the group of people who “created” the first intelligence explosion on planet Earth makes this a “hard-to-put-down” book.  The rest of the book goes through the consequences of this intelligence explosion, a phenomenon the author believes will undoubtedly take place, sooner or later. Chapter 4 focus on the explosion proper, and on how it could happen. Chapter 5, appropriately titled “Aftermath: The Next 10,000 Years” is one of the most interesting ones, and describes a number of long term scenarios that could result from such an event. These scenarios range from a benevolent and enlightened dictatorship (by the AI) to the enslaved God situation, where humanity keeps the AI in chains and uses it as a slave to develop new technologies, inaccessible to unaided humanity’s simpler minds. Always present, in these scenarios, are the risks of a hostile takeover by a human-created AGI, a theme that this book also addresses in depth, following on the ideas proposed by Nick Bostrom, in his book Superintelligence.

Being a cosmologist, Tegmark could not leave out the question of how life can spread through the Cosmos, a topic covered in depth in chapter 6, in a highly speculative fashion. Tegmark’s view is, to say the least, grandiose, envisaging a future where AGI will make it possible to spread life through the reachable universe, climbing the three levels of the Kardashev scale. The final chapters address (in a necessarily more superficial manner) the complex topics of goal setting for AI systems and artificial (or natural) consciousness. These topics somehow felt less well developed and more complete and convincing treatments can be found elsewhere. The book ends with a description of the mission of the Future of Life Institute, and the Asilomar AI Principles.

A book like this cannot leave anyone indifferent, and you will be likely to take one of two opposite sides: the optimistis, with many famous representatives, including Elon Mush, Stuart Russel and Nick Bostrom, who believe AGI can be developed and used to make humanity prosper; or the pessimists , whose more visible member is probably Yuval Noah Harari, who has voiced very serious concerns about technology developments in his book Homo Deus and in this review of Life 3.0.

Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist

Christoph Koch, the author of “Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist”  is not only a renowned researcher in brain science but also the president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, one of the foremost institutions in brain research. What he has to tell us about consciousness, and how he believes it is produced by the brain is certainly of great interest for anyone interested in these topics.

However, the book is more that just another philosophical treatise on the issue of consciousness, as it is also a bit of an autobiography and an open window on Koch’s own consciousness.

With less than 200 pages (in the paperback edition), this book is indeed a good start for those interested in the centuries-old problem of the mind-body duality and how a physical object (the brain) creates such an ethereal thing as a mind. He describes and addresses clearly the central issue of why there is such a thing as consciousness in humans, and how it creates self-awareness, free-will (maybe) and the qualia that characterize the subjective experiences each and (almost) every human has.

In Koch’s view, consciousness is not a thing that can be either on or off. He ascribes different levels of consciousness to animals and even to less complex creatures and systems. Consciousness, he argues, is created by the fact that very complex systems have a high dimensional state space, creating a subjective experience that corresponds to each configuration of this state space. In this view, computers and other complex systems can also exhibit some degree of consciousness, although much smaller than living entities, since they are much less complex.

He goes on to describe several approaches that have aimed at elucidating the complex feedback loops existing in brains, which have to exist in order to create these complex state spaces. Modern experimental techniques can analyze the differences between awake (conscious) and asleep (unconscious) brains, and learn from these differentes what exactly does create consciousness in a brain.

Parts of the book are more autobiographical, however. He describes not only his life-long efforts to address these questions, many of them developed together with Francis Crick, who remains a reference to him, as a scientist and as a person. The final chapter is more philosophical, and addresses other questions for which we have no answer yet, and may never have, such as “Why there is something instead of nothing?” or “Did an all powerful God create the universe, 14 billions year ago, complete with the laws of physics, matter and energy, or is this God simply a creation of man?”.

All in all, excellent reading, accessible to anyone interested in the topic but still deep and scientifically exact.

Portuguese Edition of The Digital Mind

IST Press, the publisher of Instituto Superior Técnico, just published the Portuguese edition of The Digital Mind, originally published by MIT Press.

The Portuguese edition, translated by Jorge Pereirinha Pires, follow the same organization and has been reviewed by a number of sources. The back-cover reviews are by Pedro Domingos, Srinivas Devadas, Pedro Guedes de Oliveira and Francisco Veloso.

A pre-publication was made by the Público newspaper, under the title Até que mundos digitais nos levará o efeito da Rainha Vermelha, making the first chapter of the book publicly available.

There are also some publicly available reviews and pieces about this edition, including an episode of a podcast and a review in the radio.

The last invention of humanity

Irving John Good was a British mathematician who worked with Alan Turing in the famous Hut 8 of Bletchley Park, contributing to the war effort by decrypting the messages coded by the German enigma machines. After that, he became a professor at Virginia Tech and, later in life, he was a consultant for the cult movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, by Stanley Kubrick.

Irving John Good (born Isadore Jacob Gudak to a Polish jewish family) is credited with coining the term intelligence explosion, to refer to the possibility that a super-intelligent system may, one day, be able to design an even more intelligent successor. In his own words:

Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an ‘intelligence explosion,’ and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, provided that the machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control.

We are still very far from being able to design an artificially intelligent (AI)  system that is smart enough to design and code even better AI systems. Our current efforts address very narrow fields, and obtain systems that do not have the general intelligence required to create the phenomenon I. J. Good was referring to. However, in some very restrict domains, we can see at work mechanisms that resemble the that very same phenomenon.

Go is a board game, very difficult to master because of the huge number of possible games and high number of possible moves at each position. Given the complexity of the game, branch and bound approaches could not be used, until recently, to derive good playing strategies. Until only a few years ago, it was believed that it would take decades to create a program that would master the game of Go, at a level comparable with the best human players.

In January 2016, DeepMind, an AI startup (which was at that time acquired by Google by a sum reported to exceed 500M dollars), reported in an article in Nature that they had managed to master the complex game of Go by using deep neural networks and a tree search engine. The system, called AlphaGo, was trained on databases of human games and eventually managed to soundly beat the best human players, becoming the best player in the world, as reported in this blog.

A couple of weeks ago, in October of 2017, DeepMind reported, in a second article in Nature, that they programmed a system, which became even more proficient at the game, that mastered the game without using any human knowledge. AlphaGo Zero did not use any human games to acquire knowledge about the game. Instead, it played millions of games (close to 30 millions, in fact, played over a period of 40 days) against another version of itself, eventually acquiring knowledge about tactics and strategies that have been slowly created by the human race for more than two millennia. By simply playing against itself, the system went from a child level (random moves) to a novice level to a world champion level. AlphaGo Zero steamrolled the original AlphaGo by 100 to 0,  showing that it is possible to obtain super-human strength without using any human generated knowledge.

In a way, the computer improved itself, by simply playing against itself until it reached perfection. Irving John Good, who died in 2009, would have liked to see this invention of mankind. Which will not be the last, yet…

Picture credits: Go board, picture taken by Hoge Rielen, available at Wikimedia Commons.