Possible minds

John Brockman’s project of bringing together 25 pioneers in Artificial Intelligence to discuss the promises and perils of the field makes for some interesting reading. This collection of short essays lets you peer inside the minds of such luminaries as Judea Pearl, Stuart Russell, Daniel Dennett, Frank Wilczek, Max Tegmark, Steven Pinter or David Deutsch, to name only a few. The fact that each one of them contributed with an essay that is only a dozen pages long does not hinder the transmission of the messages and ideas they support. On the contrary, it is nice to read about Pearl’s ideas about causality or Tegmark’s thoughts on the future of intelligence in a short essay. Although the essays do not replace longer and more elaborate texts, they certainly give the reader the gist of the central arguments that, in many cases, made the authors well-known. Although the organization of the essay varies from author to author, all contributions are relevant and entertaining, whether they come from lesser-known artists or from famous scientists such as George Church, Seth Loyd, or Rodney Brooks.

The texts in this book did not appear out of thin air. In fact, the invited contributors were given the same starting point: Norbert Wiener’s influential book “The Human Use of Human Beings”, a prescient text authored more than 70 years ago by one of the most influential researchers in the field that, ultimately, originally coined as cybernetics ultimately led to digital computers and Artificial Intelligence. First published in 1950, Wiener’s book serves as the starting point for 25 interesting takes on the future of computation, artificial intelligence, and humanity. Whether you believe that the future of humanity will be digital or are concerned that we are losing our humanity, there will be something in this book for you.

Is the Universe a mathematical structure?

In his latest book, Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality, Max Tegmark tries to answer what is maybe the most fundamental question in science and philosophy: what is the nature of reality?

Our understanding of reality has certainly undergone deep change in the last few centuries. From Galileo and Newton, to Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr and Heisenberg, Physics has evolved by leaps and bounds, as well as our understanding of the place of humans in the Universe. And yet, in some respects, we know little more than the ancient Greeks. Is the visible Universe all that exists? Could other universes, with different laws of physics, exist? Does the universe split into several universes every time a quantum observation takes place? Why is mathematics such a good model for physics (an old question) and could there exist other universes which obey different mathematical structures? These questions are not arbitrary ones, as their answers take us into the four levels of the multiverse proposed by Tegmark.

As you dive into it, the book takes us into an ever-expanding model of reality. Tegmark defines four level of multiverses: the first one consisting of all the (possibly infinite) spacetime of which we see only a ball with a radius of 14 billion light-years, since the rest is too far for light to have reached us; the second one which possibly holds other parts of spacetime which obey different laws of physics; a third one, implied by the many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics; and a fourth one, where other mathematical structures, different from the spacetime we know and love, define the rules of the game.

It is certainly a lot to take in, in a book that has less than 400 pages, and the reader may feel dizzy at times. But, in the process, Tegmark does his best at explaining what inflation is and why it plays such an important role in cosmology, how the laws of quantum physics can be viewed simply as an equation (the Schrödinger equation) describing the evolution of a point in Hilbert space, doing away with all the difficult-to-explain consequences of the Copenhagen interpretation, the difficulties caused by the measure problem, why is the space so flat, and many, many other fascinating topics in modern physics.

Since the main point of the book is to help is understand our place in this not only enormous Universe but unthinkably enormous multiverse, he brings us back to Earth (literally) with a few disturbing questions, such as:

  • What is the role of intelligence and consciousness in this humongous multiverse?
  • Why is this Universe we see amenable to life, in some places, and why have we been so lucky to be born exactly here?
  • Shall one view oneself as a random sample of an intelligent being existing in the universe (the SSA, or Self-Sampling Assumption proposed by Bostrom in his book Anthropic Bias)
  • If the SSA is valid, does it imply the Doomsday Argument, that it is very unlikely that humans will last for a long time because such a fact that would make it highly unlikely that I would have been born so soon?

All in all, a fascinating read, if at times is reads more like sci-fi than science!

The Fabric of Reality

The Fabric of Reality, a 1997 book by David Deutsch, is full of great ideas, most of them surprising and intriguing. The main argument is that explanations are the centerpiece of science and that four theories play an essential role in our understanding of the world: quantum theory, the theory of evolution, the theory of computation and epistemology (the theory of knowledge).

You may raise a number of questions about these particular choices, such as why is the theory of relativity not there or why is the theory of evolution simply not a result of other theories in physics or even what makes epistemology to special. You will have to read the book to find out but the short answer is that not everything is physics and that theories at many levels are required to explain the world. Still, in physics, the most fundamental idea is quantum theory and it has profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Perhaps the most significant impact comes from the fact that (according to Deutsch) what we know about quantum theory implies that we live in a multiverse. Each time a quantum phenomenon can conduct to more than one observable result, the universe splits into as many universes as the number of possible results, universes that exist simultaneously in the multiverse.

Although the scientific establishment views the multiverse theory with reservation, to say the least, to Deutsch, the multiverse is not just a theory, but the only possible explanation for what we know about quantum physics (he dismisses the Copenhagen interpretation as nonsense). Armed with these four theories, and the resulting conclusion that we live in a multiverse, Deutsch goes on to address thought-provoking questions, such as:

  • Is life a small thing at the scale of the universe or, on the contrary, is the most important thing on it?
  • Can we have free will, in a deterministic universe? And in the multiverse?
  • Do computers strictly more powerful than Turing machines exist, and how do they work?
  • Can mathematical proofs provide us with absolute certainties about specific mathematical statements?
  • Is time travel possible, at least in principle, either in the physical world or in a virtual reality simulator?
  • Will we (or our descendants, or some other species) eventually become gods, when we reach the Omega point?

The idea of the multiverse is required to answer most, if not all, of these questions. Deutsch is certainly not a parsimonious person when he uses universes to answer questions and to solve problems. The multiverse allows you to have free will, solves the paradoxes of time travel and makes quantum computers possible, among many other things. One example of the generous use of universes made by Deutsch is the following sentence:

When a quantum factorization engine is factorizing a 250-digit number, the number of interfering universes will be of the order of 10 to the 500. This staggeringly large number is the reason why Shor’s algorithm makes factorization tractable. I said that the algorithm requires only a few thousand arithmetic operations. I meant, of course, a few thousand operations in each universe that contributes to the answer. All those computations are performed in parallel, in different universes, and share their results through interference.

The fact that Deutsch’s arguments depend so heavily on the multiverse idea makes this book much more about the multiverse than about the other topics he addresses. After all, if the multiverse theory is wrong, many of Deutsch’s explanations collapse, interesting as they may be.

Still, the book is full of great ideas, makes for some interesting reading, and presents many interesting concepts, some of them further developed in other books by Deutsch, such as The Beginning of Infinity.

Enlightenment Now: The case for reason, science, humanism and progress

Steven Pinker’s latest book, Enlightenment Now, deserves high praise and careful attention, in a world where reason and science are being increasingly threatened. Bill Gates called it “My new favorite book of all time“, which may be somewhat of an exaggeration. Still, the book is, definitely, a must read, and should figure in the top 10 of any reader that believes that science plays an important role in the development of humanity.

Pinker’s main point is that the values of the Enlightenment, which he lists as reason, science, humanism, and progress have not only enabled humanity to evolve immensely since they were adopted, somewhere in the 18th century, but are also our best hope for the future. He argues that these values have not only improved our lives immensely, in the last two and a half centuries, but will also lead us to vastly improved lives in the future. “Dare to understand“, the cry for reason made by David Deutsch in his The Beginning of Infinity, is the key argument made by Pinker in this book. The critical use of reason leads to understanding and understanding leads to progress, unlike the beliefs in myths, religions, miracles, and signs from God(s).  Pinker’s demolition of all the values not based on the critical use of reason is complete and utterly convincing. Do not read this book if, at some level, you believe in things that cannot be explained by reason.

To be fair, a large part of the book is dedicated to showing that progress has, indeed, been remarkable, since the 18th century, when reason and science took hold and replaced myths and religions as the major references for the development of nations and societies. No less than 17 chapters are dedicated to describing the many ways humanity has progressed in the last two and a half centuries, in fields as diverse as health, democracy, wealth, peace and, yes, even sustainability.  Pinker may come up as an incorrigible optimist, describing a world so much better than that which existed in the past, so at odds with the most popular current views that everything is going to the dogs. However, the evidence he presents is compelling, well documented, and discussed at length. Counter-arguments against the idea that progress is true and unstoppable are analyzed in depth and disposed of with style and elegance.

But the book is not only about past progress. In fact, it is mostly about the importance of viewing the Enlightenment values as the only ones that will safeguard a future for humanity. If we want a future, we need to preserve them, in a world where fake news, false science, and radical politics are endangering progress, democracy, and human rights.

It is comforting to find a book that so powerfully defends science, reason, and humanistic values against the claims that only a return to the ways of the past will save humanity of certain doom. Definitely, a must read if you believe in, and care for, Humanity.

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the end of the human era

In what regards the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence, and the speed that it will develop, James Barrat is extremely optimistic. The author of Our Final Invention is fully convinced that existing systems are much more advanced than we give them credit for, and also that  AI researchers will create Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) much sooner than we expect.

In what regards the consequences of AGI, however, Barrat is uncompromisingly pessimistic. He believes, and argues at length, that AGI will bring with it the demise of the human race and that we should stop messing with advanced AI altogether.

I found the arguments presented for both positions rather unconvincing. His argument for the most likely development of AGI in the next decade or so is based on rather high-level considerations and conversations with a number of scientists, researchers, and entrepreneurs from the field. Needless to say, they were picked from the ones most connected with his ideas. As for the arguments that AGI will be not only dangerous but, ultimately, fatal for humanity, they are borrowed, with minor changes, from the standard superintelligence (Bostrom) and intelligence explosion (I. J. Good) ideas.

From Watson’s performance in Jeopardy and from the ANN’s small victories in the perception fields, Barrat concludes, without any additional considerations, that AGI is around the corner and that it will be very, very, dangerous. The book was written before the recent successes achieved by DeepMind and others, which leads me to believe that, if written now, his conclusions would be even more drastic.

Even though there is relatively new material here, a few stories and descriptions are interesting. Barrat makes extensive use of his conversations with the likes of Omohundro, Yudkwosky, Vassar, and Kurzweil and some stories are very entertaining, even though they look a bit like science fiction. Altogether, the book makes for some interesting, if somewhat unconvincing, reading.

Virtually Human: the promise of digital immortality

Martine Rothblatt’s latest book, Virtually Human, the promise – and the peril – of digital immortality, recommended by none less than the likes of Craig Venter and Ray Kurzweil, is based on an interesting premise, which looks quite reasonable in principle.

Each one of us leaves behind such a large digital trace that it could be used, at least in principle, to teach a machine to behave like the person that generated the trace. In fact, if you put together all the pictures, videos, emails and messages that you generate in a lifetime, together with additional information like GPS coordinates, phone conversations, and social network info, there should be enough information for the right software to learn to behave just like you.

Rothblatt imagines that all this information will be stored in what she calls a mindfile and that such a mindfile could be used by software (mindware) to create mindclones, software systems that would think, behave and act like the original human that was used to create the mindfile. Other systems, similar to these, but not based on a copy of a human original, are called bemans, and raise similar questions. Would such systems have rights and responsibilities, just like humans? Rothblatt argues forcefully that society will have to recognize them as persons, sooner or later. Otherwise, we would assist to a return to situations that modern societies have already abandoned, like slavery, and other practices that disrespect basic human rights (in this case, mindclone and beman’s rights).

Most of the book is dedicated to the analysis of the social, ethical, and economic consequences of an environment where humans live with mindclones and bemans. This analysis is entertaining and comprehensive, ranging from subjects as diverse as the economy, human relations, families, psychology, and even religion.  If one assumes the technology to create mindclones will happen, thinking about the consequences of such a technology is interesting and entertaining.

However, the book falls short in that it does not provide any convincing evidence that the technology will come to exist, in any form similar to the one that is assumed so easily by the author. We do not know how to create mindware that could interpret a mindfile and use it to create a conscious, sentient, self-aware system that is indistinguishable, in its behavior, from the original. Nor are we likely to find out soon how such a mindware could be designed. And yet, Rothblatt seems to think that such a technology is just around the corner, maybe just a few decades away. All in all, it sounds more like (poor) science fiction than the shape of things to come.

The Beginning of Infinity

David Deutsch‘s newest book, The Beginning of Infinity is a tour de force argument for the power of science to transform the world. Deutsch’s main point is that human intelligence, once it reached the point where it started to be used to construct predictive explanations about the behavior of nature, became universal. Here, “universal” means that is can be used to understand any phenomenon and that this understanding leads to the creation of new technologies, which will be used to spread human intelligence throughout the known universe.

The Beginning of Infinity is not just one more book about science and how science is transforming our world. It is an all-encompassing analysis of the way human intelligence and human societies can develop or stagnate, by adopting or refusing to adopt the stance of looking for understandable explanations. Deutsch calls “static” those societies that refuse to look for new, non-supernatural explanations and “dynamic” those that are constantly looking for new explanations, based on objective and checkable evidence. Dynamic societies, he argues, develop and propagate rational memes, while static societies hold on to non-rational memes.

In the process, Deutsch talks authoritatively about evolution, the universality of computation, quantum mechanics, the multiverse and the paradoxes of infinity. They are not disparate subjects since they all become part of one single story on how humanity managed to understand and control the physical world.

Deutsch is at his best when arguing that science and technology are not only positive forces but that they are the only way to ensure the survival of Humanity in the long run. He argues, convincingly, against the myth of Gaia, the idea that the planet is a living being providing us with a generous and forgiving environment as well as against the related, almost universal, concern that technological developments are destroying the planet. This is nonsense, he argues. The future survival of Humanity and the hope of spreading human intelligence throughout the Cosmos reside entirely in our ability to control nature and to bend it to our will. Otherwise, we will follow the path of the many species that became extinct, for not being able to control the natural or unnatural phenomena that led to their extinction.

Definitely, the book to read if you care about the Future of Humanity.

 

Crystal Nights

Exactly 80 years ago, Kristallnacht (the night of the crystals) took place in Germany, in the night from the 9th to the 10th of November. Jews were persecuted and killed, and their property was destroyed, in an event that is an important marker in the rise of the anti-semitism movement that characterized Nazi Germany. The name comes from the many windows of Jewish-owned stores broken during that night.

Greg Egan, one of my favorite science fiction writers, wrote a short story inspired in that same night, entitled Crystal Nights. This (very) short story is publicly available (you can find it here ) and is definitely worth reading. I will not spoil the ending here, but it has to do with computers and singularities. The story was also included in a book that features other short stories by Greg Egan.

If you like this story, maybe you should check other books by Egan, such as Permutation City, Diaspora or Axiomatic (another collection of short stories).

LIFE 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Max Tegmark’s latest book, LIFE 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence, is an enthralling journey into the future, when the developments in artificial intelligence create a new type of lifeform on Earth.

Tegmark proposes to classify life in three stages. Life 1.0, unintelligent life, is able to change its hardware and improve itself only through the very slow and blind process of natural evolution. Single cell organisms, plants and simple animals are in this category. Life 2.0 is also unable to change its hardware (excepto through evolution, as for Life 1.0) but can change its software, stored in the brains, by using previous experience to learn new behaviors. Higher animals and humans, in particular, belong here. Humans can now, up to a limited point, change their hardware (through prosthetics, cellphones, computers and other devices) so they could also be considered now Life 2.1.

Life 3.0 is the new generation of life, which can change both its software and its hardware. The ability to change the computational support (i.e., the physical basis of computation) results from technological advances, which will only accelerate with the advent of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). The book is really about the future of a world where AGI enables humanity to create a whole range of new technologies, and expand new forms of life through the cosmos.

The riveting prelude, The Tale of the Omega Team, is the story of the group of people who “created” the first intelligence explosion on planet Earth makes this a “hard-to-put-down” book.  The rest of the book goes through the consequences of this intelligence explosion, a phenomenon the author believes will undoubtedly take place, sooner or later. Chapter 4 focus on the explosion proper, and on how it could happen. Chapter 5, appropriately titled “Aftermath: The Next 10,000 Years” is one of the most interesting ones, and describes a number of long term scenarios that could result from such an event. These scenarios range from a benevolent and enlightened dictatorship (by the AI) to the enslaved God situation, where humanity keeps the AI in chains and uses it as a slave to develop new technologies, inaccessible to unaided humanity’s simpler minds. Always present, in these scenarios, are the risks of a hostile takeover by a human-created AGI, a theme that this book also addresses in depth, following on the ideas proposed by Nick Bostrom, in his book Superintelligence.

Being a cosmologist, Tegmark could not leave out the question of how life can spread through the Cosmos, a topic covered in depth in chapter 6, in a highly speculative fashion. Tegmark’s view is, to say the least, grandiose, envisaging a future where AGI will make it possible to spread life through the reachable universe, climbing the three levels of the Kardashev scale. The final chapters address (in a necessarily more superficial manner) the complex topics of goal setting for AI systems and artificial (or natural) consciousness. These topics somehow felt less well developed and more complete and convincing treatments can be found elsewhere. The book ends with a description of the mission of the Future of Life Institute, and the Asilomar AI Principles.

A book like this cannot leave anyone indifferent, and you will be likely to take one of two opposite sides: the optimistis, with many famous representatives, including Elon Mush, Stuart Russel and Nick Bostrom, who believe AGI can be developed and used to make humanity prosper; or the pessimists , whose more visible member is probably Yuval Noah Harari, who has voiced very serious concerns about technology developments in his book Homo Deus and in this review of Life 3.0.

Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist

Christoph Koch, the author of “Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist”  is not only a renowned researcher in brain science but also the president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, one of the foremost institutions in brain research. What he has to tell us about consciousness, and how he believes it is produced by the brain is certainly of great interest for anyone interested in these topics.

However, the book is more that just another philosophical treatise on the issue of consciousness, as it is also a bit of an autobiography and an open window on Koch’s own consciousness.

With less than 200 pages (in the paperback edition), this book is indeed a good start for those interested in the centuries-old problem of the mind-body duality and how a physical object (the brain) creates such an ethereal thing as a mind. He describes and addresses clearly the central issue of why there is such a thing as consciousness in humans, and how it creates self-awareness, free-will (maybe) and the qualia that characterize the subjective experiences each and (almost) every human has.

In Koch’s view, consciousness is not a thing that can be either on or off. He ascribes different levels of consciousness to animals and even to less complex creatures and systems. Consciousness, he argues, is created by the fact that very complex systems have a high dimensional state space, creating a subjective experience that corresponds to each configuration of this state space. In this view, computers and other complex systems can also exhibit some degree of consciousness, although much smaller than living entities, since they are much less complex.

He goes on to describe several approaches that have aimed at elucidating the complex feedback loops existing in brains, which have to exist in order to create these complex state spaces. Modern experimental techniques can analyze the differences between awake (conscious) and asleep (unconscious) brains, and learn from these differentes what exactly does create consciousness in a brain.

Parts of the book are more autobiographical, however. He describes not only his life-long efforts to address these questions, many of them developed together with Francis Crick, who remains a reference to him, as a scientist and as a person. The final chapter is more philosophical, and addresses other questions for which we have no answer yet, and may never have, such as “Why there is something instead of nothing?” or “Did an all powerful God create the universe, 14 billions year ago, complete with the laws of physics, matter and energy, or is this God simply a creation of man?”.

All in all, excellent reading, accessible to anyone interested in the topic but still deep and scientifically exact.