The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Following the release in the US,  The Digital Mind, published by MIT Press,  is now available in Europe, at an Amazon store near you (and possibly in other bookstores). The book covers the evolution of technology, leading towards the expected emergence of digital minds.

Here is a short rundown of the book, kindly provided by yours truly, the author.

New technologies have been introduced in human lives at an ever increasing rate, since the first significant advances took place with the cognitive revolution, some 70.000 years ago. Although electronic computers are recent and have been around for only a few decades, they represent just the latest way to process information and create order out of chaos. Before computers, the job of processing information was done by living organisms, which are nothing more than complex information processing devices, created by billions of years of evolution.

Computers execute algorithms, sequences of small steps that, in the end, perform some desired computation, be it simple or complex. Algorithms are everywhere, and they became an integral part of our lives. Evolution is, in itself, a complex and long- running algorithm that created all species on Earth. The most advanced of these species, Homo sapiens, was endowed with a brain that is the most complex information processing device ever devised. Brains enable humans to process information in a way unparalleled by any other species, living or extinct, or by any machine. They provide humans with intelligence, consciousness and, some believe, even with a soul, a characteristic that makes humans different from all other animals and from any machine in existence.

But brains also enabled humans to develop science and technology to a point where it is possible to design computers with a power comparable to that of the human brain. Artificial intelligence will one day make it possible to create intelligent machines and computational biology will one day enable us to model, simulate and understand biological systems and even complete brains with unprecedented levels of detail. From these efforts, new minds will eventually emerge, minds that will emanate from the execution of programs running in powerful computers. These digital minds may one day rival our own, become our partners and replace humans in many tasks. They may usher in a technological singularity, a revolution in human society unlike any other that happened before. They may make humans obsolete and even a threatened species or they make us super-humans or demi-gods.

How will we create these digital minds? How will they change our daily lives? Will we recognize them as equals or will they forever be our slaves? Will we ever be able to simulate truly human-like minds in computers? Will humans transcend the frontiers of biology and become immortal? Will humans remain, forever, the only known intelligence in the universe?

 

Artificial Intelligence developments: the year in review

TechCrunch, a popular site dedicated to technology news, has published a list of the the top Artificial Intelligence news of 2016.

2016 seems indeed to have been the year Artificial Intelligence (AI) left the confinement of university labs to come into public view.

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Several of the news selected by TechCrunch, were also covered in this blog.

In March a Go playing program, developed by Google’s DeepMind, AlphaGo, defeated 18-time world champion Lee Sedol (reference in the TechCrunch review).

Digital Art, where deep learning algorithms learn to paint in the style of a particular artist, was also the topic of one post (reference in the TechCrunch review).

In May, Digital Minds posted Moore’s law is dead, long live Moore´s law, describing how Google’s new chip can be used to run deep learning algorithms using Google’s TensorFlow (related article in the TechCrunch review).

TechCrunch has identified a number of other relevant developments that make for an interesting reading, including the Facebook-Amazon-Google-IBM-Microsoft mega partnership on AI, the Facebook strategy on AI and the news about the language invented by Google’s translation tool.

Will the AI wave gain momentum in 2017, as predicted by this article? I think the chances are good, but only the future will tell.

It’s official: the best Go player in the world is a program, AlphaGo

Go-playing program AlphaGo, developed by Google’s DeepMind, has secured victory against 18-time world champion Lee Sedol. AlphaGo won the first three games of a five game match played in Seoul, thus securing the match.

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AlphaGo beats Lee Sedol, one the best Go players in the world

AlphaGo, the Go playing program developed by Google’s DeepMind, scored its first victory in the match against Lee Sedol.

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This win comes in the heels of AlphaGo victory over Fan Hui, the reigning 3-times European Champion,  but it has a deeper meaning, since Lee Sedol is one of the two top Go players in the world, together with Lee Changho. Go is viewed as one of the more difficult games to be mastered by computer, given the high branching factor and the inherent difficulty of position evaluation. It has been believed that computers would not master this game for many decades to come.

Ongoing coverage of the match is available in the AlphaGo website and the matches will be livestreamed on DeepMind’s YouTube channel.

AlphaGo used deep neural networks trained by a combination of supervised learning from professional games and reinforcement learning from games it played with itself. Two different networks are used, one to evaluate board positions and another one to select moves. These networks are then used inside a special purpose search algorithm.

The image shows the final position in the game, courtesy of Google’s DeepMind.

Computers finally excel at Go

 

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Go is a beautiful game, with a very large branching factor that makes it extremely hard for computers. For decades, playing this game well was outside the reach of existing programs.

We just learned that computers finally mastered Go, in a paper published in the journal Nature. By using machine learning techniques and, in particular, deep learning, the program AlphaGo, created by Google’s company DeepMind, managed to beat Fan Hui, the European Go champion, five times out of five. Whether AlphaGo is sufficiently strong to beat the best players in the world, remains to be seen. However, it already represents a very significant advance of the state of the art.

What was maybe the last bastion in table games still unconquered by computers is no more. Computers are now better than humans at all table games invented by humanity.